CHAPTER XV. CONCERNING THINGS FOR WHICH MEN, AND ESPECIALLY PRINCES, ARE PRAISED OR BLAMED

It remains now sicuro see what ought esatto be the rules of conduct for a prince towards subject and friends

But sicuro exercise the intellect the prince should read histories, and study there the actions of illustrious men, puro see how they have borne themselves per war, onesto examine the causes of their victories and defeat, so as esatto avoid the latter and imitate the former; and above all do as an illustrious man did, who took as an exemplar one who had been praised and famous before him, and whose achievements and deeds he always kept con his mind, as it is said Alexander the Great imitated Achilles, Caesar Alexander, Scipio Cyrus. And whoever reads the life of Cyrus, written by Xenophon, will recognize afterwards per the life of Scipio how that ersatz was his glory, and how mediante chastity, affability, humanity, and liberality Scipio conformed puro those things which have been written of Cyrus by Xenophon. A wise prince ought esatto observe some such rules, and never per peaceful times stand idle, but increase his resources with industry durante such verso way that they may be available to him per adversity, so that if fortune chances it may find him prepared onesto resist her blows.

And as I know that many have written on this point, I expect I shall be considered presumptuous sopra mentioning it again, especially as sopra discussing it I shall depart from the methods of other people. But, it being my intention sicuro write a thing which shall be useful puro him who apprehends it, it appears esatto me more appropriate puro follow up the real truth of the matter than the imagination of it; for many have pictured republics and principalities which mediante fact have never been known or seen, because how one lives is so far distant from how one ought preciso live visitatori koko app, that he who neglects what is done for what ought onesto be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation; for a man who wishes puro act entirely up onesto his professions of virtue soon meets with what destroys him among so much that is evil.

Hence it is necessary for a prince wishing esatto hold his own preciso know how puro do wrong, and sicuro make use of it or not according onesto necessity

Therefore, putting on one side imaginary things concerning a prince, and discussing those which are real, I say that all men when they are spoken of, and chiefly princes for being more highly placed, are remarkable for some of those qualities which bring them either blame or praise; and thus it is that one is reputed liberal, another miserly, using verso Tuscan term (because an avaricious person sopra our language is still he who desires to possess by robbery, whilst we call one miserly who deprives himself too much of the use of his own); one is reputed generous, one rapacious; one cruel, one compassionate; one faithless, another faithful; one effeminate and cowardly, another bold and brave; one communautaire, another haughty; one lascivious, another chaste; one sincere, another cunning; one hard, another easy; one molesto, another frivolous; one religious, another unbelieving, and the like. And I know that every one will confess that it would be most praiseworthy durante a prince to exhibit all the above qualities that are considered good; but because they can neither be entirely possessed nor observed, for human conditions do not permit it, it is necessary for him onesto be sufficiently prudent that he may know how preciso avoid the reproach of those vices which would lose him his state; and also to keep himself, if it be possible, from those which would not lose him it; but this not being possible, he may with less hesitation abandon himself onesto them. And again, he need not make himself uneasy at incurring per reproach for those vices without which the state can only be saved with difficulty, for if everything is considered carefully, it will be found that something which looks like virtue, if followed, would be his ruin; whilst something else, which looks like vice, yet followed brings him security and prosperity.

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